The Urinary Tract System: What Urologists Treat

The Urinary Tract System: What Urologists Treat

by Jeetendra Kumar (SU)

The urinary tract system is responsible for removing waste and excess water from the body. It consists of the bladder, kidneys, two ureters, and urethra. The kidneys filter blood and remove waste products, which are then excreted in the urine. The ureters then carry the urine to the bladder, where the bladder stores it until it is ready to be expelled through the urethra.

There are many problems that can occur with the urinary tract system. Some common problems include UTIs, kidney stones, and bladder infections. These problems can be extremely painful and cause a lot of discomfort. If not treated properly, they can lead to more serious health issues. Below are some of the most common problems of the urinary tract system that urologists treat.

Urinary Tract Infections 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enters the urinary tract. A hallmark symptom of a UTI is a burning sensation that is felt when urinating. Other symptoms may include having a frequent urge to urinate and producing cloudy, bloody, or strong-smelling urine. There are several potential causes of UTI in males, but the most common is usually related to sexual activity. Other possible causes include blockages in the urinary tract, such as an enlarged prostate.

Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are small, hard deposits of salts and minerals that form in the kidneys, and can vary in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. Kidney stones usually don't cause any symptoms until they start to move down the ureters or the tubes that carry urine from each kidney to the bladder. When this happens, kidney stones can block the flow of urine and cause sharp, severe pain in the side and back. There are several things that can increase your risk for developing kidney stones, including eating a diet high in animal protein and salt and having a family history of kidney stones.

Kidney Infection

A kidney infection is caused by bacteria entering the kidney through the urinary tract. The most common symptom of a kidney infection is a pain in the lower back or side. Other symptoms may include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and cloudy urine. If left untreated, a kidney infection can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition caused by an infection that spreads throughout the body, or renal failure, when the kidneys are no longer able to function properly.

Bladder Infection

The most common cause of bladder infection is bacteria that enters the urethra and then travels to the bladder. One of the most common cause of bladder infection in males is a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH occurs when the prostate gland enlarges, which can block or slow the flow of urine. This can lead to an increased risk for urinary tract infection. Symptoms of BPH may include difficulty urinating, a weak stream of urine, and a feeling that you need to urinate more often.

Symptoms of a bladder infection may include cloudy or bloody urine, strong-smelling urine, burning sensation when urinating, and a frequent urge to urinate even if little comes out when you do go.


The most common symptom of incontinence is leaking urine when you don't want to. You may also feel a strong urge to urinate even when your bladder isn't full or wake up frequently during the night needing to go to the bathroom. In men, incontinence can be caused by an enlarged prostate and nerve damage due to diabetes.

Top Urologist in Phoenix, AZ

Dr. Desiderio Avila Jr. at Ironwood Urology specializes in treating problems of the urinary tract and men’s health issues. Dr. Avila is regarded as a top urologist in Phoenix, and he is board-certified and fellowship-trained. To schedule an appointment with Dr. Avila, call our urology clinic in Phoenix today at (480) 961-2323 or use our convenient online request form